See Fischli & Weiss The Way Things Go
Aprill 28 to June 22
For many artists in the late 50s and through the 60s, the primacy of the object was discarded in favour of the construction of events. Not only was the process of making something of more significance than what was made, but any object that was made existed solely for its potentiality to help create new events, such as that formed between work and viewer. John Latham, for instance, coined the term ,event structure' as both a personal artistic and philosophical tool, while David Medalla made his work under the rubric of 'bio-kineticism' as a way of describing observable movement and immaterial forces.
Although Medalla's term applies to Liliane Lijn better than Latham's does -- especially in regard to her interest in the movement of light -- this exhibition covering the first two decades of her career upsets such a broadly declared reading. Her first works, such as Oneiric Landscape, 1959, or Dreamland, 1959, made in a late Surrealist mileu in Paris are a graphic amalgam of Max Ernst and Henri Michaux, where a biomorphic semi-abstract ground serves as the base for a figurative delineation of eyes, faces and animalistic part-bodies. The technique of these works highlights a dynamic that would continue through the rest of her career between what might be termed a bio-kinetic automatism (whether or not it resides in the action of the unconscious, the action of electric energy, sub-atomic particles or the movement of light) and the search for a figuratively defined identity.
By 1960 and 1961 blocks of perspex -- cut into or drilled and acid etched with white painted backs -- present otherworldly shadows and bubble clusters as fantastic landscapes, whether terrestial, mental or celestial. These works, and her later 1966 series of 'Cosmic Flares' -- large blocks of perspex injected with a number of polymer discs that act as lenses for the randomly pulsing lights that play across their surfaces -- employ metaphors derived from science fact as much as science fiction. These works lead directly to her creation of 'Liquid Reflections' between 1966 and 1968, revolving shallow perspex drums that contain a mixture of water and liquid paraffin condensing to form myriad droplets on its walls. Two acrylic balls of different size and colour move across the surface of each drum and a spotlight picks out the movements of the different lenses -- droplets, drum and balls. The presentation of a chaotic flux revealing itself through the action of light stands beside the contemporaneous bio-kineticism of Hans Haacke's Codensation Cube, as much as Medalla's 'Bubble Machines' or even Gustav Metzger's auto-destructive painting with acid on nylon. However, there are also sharp distinctions between these works: Haacke's is an examination of certain conditions (whether biological or, later, social), Metzger's is an amalgam of aesthetics with a particular activist outlook, while Lijn's work encourages the attainment of a state of inner reverie. The darkness of the room in which the 'Liquid Reflections' are installed, the soft furnishings, the defined pools of light on each gently moving drum, call for a meditative state that pulls viewers inwards into themselves.
From the mid 60s to the mid 70s she was producing both a series of 'Light Columns' -- revolving columns around which copper wire had been tightly wound, light dancing over its surface irregularities -- and a series of cone-shaped sculptures, which were variously split, segmented, augmented by coloured light or overlaid with words and which either revolved on a turntable or remained static. What both types of work had in common, however, was a verticality that was quite new in her work. They rise up from the platform of the 'Liquid Reflections' as a new archetype, totems that embody a particular search for identity.
By the 70s her work was largely divided between her 'Light Columns' and an investigation of the play of light through prisms. At first these prisms, largely small in scale, are contained in cases as if a sacred fetish object, or arranged on low plinths like archaic gaming pieces. But by the end of the 70s these small-scale enclosed boxed scenarios -- such as Homage to Milarepa, 1972, in which the prisms are mounted on small perspex pillars on a light box -- give way to large prisms mounted on life-size aluminium frames that are demonstrably figurative in intention. Although these Four Figures of Light, 1978, seem far removed from the transcendental asceticism of the 'Liquid Reflections', they both answer the question she had posed herself some years before, 'What would it be like to inhabit a world in which humans become light?'. Both the turning inwards and corporeal dematerialisation of the 'Liquid Reflections' and the extrovert refractive figuration of the Four Figures of Light are stages along Lijn's elaboration of an identity defined through a loss of ego and the material body, which she codified in her 1983 book Crossing Map: 'I hoped to direct scientific knowledge of the external world inwards, to use it as a precise vision of "self", feeling that it was high time we demolished the barrier between the observer and the observed.'
ANDREW WILSON is deputy editor of Art Monthly.
Liliane Lijn l to r Feathered Lady 1979 Heshe 1980 Four Figures of Light 1978 Queen of Hearts Queen of Diamonds 1980 Back wall Waveguide 1977-78
Liliane Lijn Works 1959-80 tours to Djanogly Art Gallery, Nottingham July 2 to August 22.
Aerodynamics is the study of how gases interact with moving bodies. Because the gas that we encounter most is air, aerodynamicsis primarily concerned with the forces of drag and lift, which are caused by air passing over and around solid bodies
A sophisticated computer program produced this “map” of the air pressure changes on a Boeing 747 jetliner traveling at 84 percent of the speed of sound. The lines link points of equal pressure. Red shows higher pressure; green shows lower pressure.
The boundary layer is a very thin layer of air flowing over the surface of an object (like a wing). As air moves past the wing, the molecules right next to the wing stick to the surface. Each layer of molecules in the boundary layer moves faster than the layer closer to the surface. The greater the distance (n) from the surface, the greater the velocity (V) of the molecules. At the outer edge of the boundary layer, the molecules move at the same velocity (free stream velocity) as the molecules outside the boundary layer. Ludwig Prandtl revolutionized fluid dynamics when he introduced the boundary layer concept in the early 1900s
so bacialy the size of the wake and sahpe of the "wake" is proportianal to the size of the boundary layer... wich shape is a slow progression of the creve of the cerve of the shape. there for the Wake is propotanal to the rate at wich the cerve od the wing cerve. to increase lift the airofoils cerve is exponial. so the realation ship of the cerve to wake ends out to be a "rate of change of a rate of change." im an artist not a mathmaticain/aironautical engeneer so im levaeing it at this.
I usaly find that photography has big words behind the pictures. i really liked this set of picture because there werent any big words. Tilley use photography as a way of documenting things and plaaces witch ill probaly neaver see in my life and he tells us the story behind the tacking of each picture. it wasnt the most intresting show ive even seen but it was enjoyable. like when you grandperants come back form there exsotic hoilday and get the hole family sat round the telivision to show you the picture of where theve been and tell you about the trip. some images are hard to belive and some are what youll expect. suritanly a world shrinking exhobition with out the need to leave the UK.
Soap has two staes at room temprature. state one is normal hard soap and state two is frothed up soap with water, state two can be split into soap bubbles and soap cream.
this is a soap bubble makeinf system. the soap then travels up the inside of the stuructre and falls out the top to make a form.
- Conservation of mass: In fluid dynamics, the mathematical formulation of this principle is known as the mass continuity equation, which requires that mass is neither created nor destroyed within a flow of interest.
- Conservation of momentum: In fluid dynamics, the mathematical formulation of this principle can be considered an application of Newton's Second Law. Momentum within a flow of interest is only created or destroyed due to the work of external forces, which may include both surface forces, such as viscous (frictional) forces, and body forces, such as weight. The momentum conservation principle may be expressed as either a single vector equation or a set of three scalar equations, derived from the components of the three-dimensional flow velocity vector. In its most complete form, the momentum conservation equations are known as the Navier-Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations have no known analytical solution, and are solved in modern aerodynamics using computational techniques. Because of the computational cost of solving these complex equations, simplified expressions of momentum conservation may be appropriate to specific applications. The Euler equations are a set of momentum conservation equations which neglect viscous forces used widely by modern aerodynamicists in cases where the effect of viscous forces is expected to be small. Additionally, Bernoulli's equation is a solution to the momentum conservation equation of an inviscid flow, neglecting gravity.
- Conservation of energy: The energy conservation equation states that energy is neither created nor destroyed within a flow, and that any addition or subtraction of energy is due either to the fluid flow in and out of the region of interest, heat transfer, or work.
hans haacke condensation cube
Tinguely to the unplanned...
solid state soap, useing it as a tradtional maitiral in a traditional way
Iglesias seem to use soap as a midium to imatate or coment on natral objects live plants and vines and treeys
Michael Duchamp drop sticks
the drop stick are a very simple exanple of how we can build systems to create art witch takes advantage of the complex systems witch we dont understand yet that exsist in nature. these sticks to me talk about a relationship between the sitch and gravity and the floor and the unmersurable forces acting on the stick witch effect the outcome. we cant mursure or predict how the stick will draw and we cant desing the out come. only the mathmical and phiscycsal laws of chance can do this and we havent got the knolage to quintfiy this yet.
In "The Great Pretender," kinetic artist Theo Jansen shows that the concept of 'I' is merely a tool in our evolution. We need this tool to be selfish. There can be no selfishness without the I-fantasy. Since 1990, Theo Jansen has been engaged in creating new forms of life: beach animals made from yellow plastic tubing. Skeletons made from these tubes are able to walk, deriving their nutrition from the wind. They evolved over many generations, becoming increasingly adept at surviving storms and water from the sea. Theo Jansen's ultimate wish is to release herds of these animals on the shore. In reenacting Genesis, so to speak, he hopes to become wiser in his dealings with the existing nature by encountering problems the 'creator' had to face. "The Great Pretender" is a account of Jansen's experiences as God.
Strandbeests : The Dream Machines of Theo Jansen
entrapy and the natral reclameing of man made space/objects
covering up/ hindeing
inclosement amd hidden
Often perplexing, and pointed in the titling of his works, Roger Hiorns has made various pieces in strikingly different media-From one deploying dark steel plates sprayed, at crotch level, with the tony scent of Jean Patou's Joy to another with fire tongueing through a metal grating-all dubbed Vitiixhall, 2003. As writer Siobhan McDevitt points out in the brochure accompanying Hiorns's UCLA Hammer Projects show, "If the word Vanxhall can mean, among other things, a London tube stop, the seventeenth-century pleasuregarden for which the tube stop is named, a car company, a Morrissey record . . . why can't Vjnxhjll (now the title) mean discrete works of art?"
The works Hiorns showed here are all untitled, and all but one are from 2007. On the floor near a back corner of the gallery, a scattering of contact lenses, gray, blue, blue-gray, lilac, and jade, looking like fish scales or sequins, glittered gently, awaiting eyes. Winnowed of everything except the readymade lenses that give it presence, Hiorns's point may be to put as much pressure as possible on optics, focusing literally on how and in what way things are now seen. In lensing contact (between people and things, sign and signified), the whatever that provides the spark of connectivity may be memorial, which is to say, as ephemeral, immaterial-yet as crucial as sight itself.
In an unpublished statement, Hiorns comments that his show was "a group of stains from one compulsion or another." Above a sculpture made up of a car engine covered in blue crystals (a product of the artist's now recurrent copper sulphate process) and nestled in two cubbies of a steel column-an assemblage recalling another of his crystallized engine sculptures, The Architect's Mother, 2003-glowed a lightbulb encrusted with semen. Nearby, a silver sheet attached Hat to a gallery wall showed a drippy smear of amyl nitrate, recalling an earlier piece titled Young Offender, 2004.
In the largest sculpture, two giant, overlapping contact-lens-shaped steel discs were supported by a metal apparatus ballasted by steel blocks. The back of the upper disc had been doused with Dettol, a strong, all-purpose British disinfectant. Next, placed on a matter-of-fact white cubical base, two steel cylinders, scuffed and marked, seem to have somehow oozed a salt residue. Two small, dark gelatin silver prints, one of the interior of Notre-Dame, the other of the London Central Mosque, at once elucidated and complicated the goings-on. Hanging by steel cable, a sculpture made of two clear, triangular lithium glass cylinders contained doses of steroids.
With the stated aim "not to succumb to a kind of recognizable belief system" as he looks "for a way in anatomizing [his] time," Hiorns has summoned signifiers of reckless potency, pleasure, and cleansing associated with masculinity-pumped up (steroids), partied-out (amyl nitrate), spent (sperm), and occupied with attempting to dispose of the traces of its actions (Dettol). These furtive substances, especially when observed alongside his scattered lenses suggesting other bodily secretions (tears, sweat), formulate an industrial shadow portrait of man, spurred and spurned by modernist concerns (questions of originality, individuality, presence, and belief) that stain contemporary consciousness. Hiorns creates an atmosphere of something harsh yet somber and irrevocably lost, in work that remains not only more compelling than that of many artists (Banks Violette, Aaron Young, Terence Koh) guilty of churning out tired, neo-gothic claptrap with which his project should in no way be confused, but also able to convince the attuned that the contemporary can still, in the dusk of the real, annex the primordial. While pressing on the meanings of entitlement, the artist questions how to sustain this situation without distain
The location of seizure is important. ! read above text.